Mutex is an abbreviation for “mutual exclusion”. Mutex variables are one of the primary means of implementing thread synchronization and for protecting shared data when multiple writes occur.
A mutex variable acts like a “lock” protecting access to a shared data resource. The basic concept of a mutex as used in Pthreads is that only one thread can lock (or own) a mutex variable at any given time. Thus, even if several threads try to lock a mutex only one thread will be successful. No other thread can own that mutex until the owning thread unlocks that mutex. Threads must “take turns” accessing protected data.
Mutexes can be used to prevent “race” conditions. An example of a race condition involving a bank transaction is shown below:
In the above example, a mutex should be used to lock the “Balance” while a thread is using this shared data resource.
Very often the action performed by a thread owning a mutex is the updating of global variables. This is a safe way to ensure that when several threads update the same variable, the final value is the same as what it would be if only one thread performed the update. The variables being updated belong to a “critical section”.
A typical sequence in the use of a mutex is as follows:
When several threads compete for a mutex, the losers block at that call - an unblocking call is available with “trylock” instead of the “lock” call.
When protecting shared data, it is the programmer’s responsibility to make sure every thread that needs to use a mutex does so. For example, if 4 threads are updating the same data, but only one uses a mutex, the data can still be corrupted.